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Research Assignment ” What are the factors that affect the female or male’s students who perform better in English Literature “


Literature Review

Academic performance is a measurement used to emphasize how well a student meets standards created by local government and the educational institution itself. Since finding jobs is really competitive in working field, parents, legislators and government education departments are interested in the essential of student doing well in school. Many strategies are taken into consideration in order to evaluate students’ performances—to take written and oral tests, to perform presentations, to turn in homework and to participate in class activities and discussions (Bell, n.d.). Besides, Goddard indicates that their academic success are crucially and considerably influenced by two mains factors such as the environment—the school personnel, members of the families and communities—and their personnel characteristics (as cited in Faroog et al., 2011, p. 3). What is more, Eitle mentions that the relationship between gender and the academic achievement of learners has been debated for decades (as cited in Faroog et al., 2011, p. 3). Therefore, some researchers state that girls have better academic performances than boys while some disagree with that finding and others have found that both sexes of students perform academically equal at school.

Concerning the male academic performance, many researchers believe that male students perform better than female students. Based on a work on factors affecting female’s participation in school done in some developing countries of Africa, Adhimabi and Heneveld (1995) stated that many teachers in some developing countries of Africa claimed and proven that female students are academically inferior to male students. In addition to the finding, Oladeji and Sangotayo (2011) also supported that the finding of male students are doing better in academic performance than female by conducting a comparative study of both sexes on school performance in the field of Engineering Courses at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. The study used the mean and standard deviations at the 95 % confidence level as an analyzing method, and they used the results of the both sexes’ performance over the period of five years in all six courses to support their findings. Although many researches have demonstrated many results which girls surpass boys in school grades and even many people have begun to make the stereotype of that, Judith Kleinfeld does not find the results very convincing. In her online article, Judith Kleinfeld pointed out that school grades were based on a systematic way of assessment made by the institution. In other words, the scores will only be measured by how well the students adhere to the rules such as turning in assignments and homework on time or following the teacher’s directions. Additionally, social phenomenons seem to support the theory of Judith Kleinfeld because nowadays many well-known social distributers are predominantly male rather than female.

Despite the fact of gender inequality through the history up until now, the education for female students across all ages has been highly encouraged and is believably seen much of improvement due to the increase of female academic score performance at universities; whereas, male performance at school has been gradually declined as they, male students, go to higher education. According to a study of female academic performance in mechanical engineering conducted by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University, it confidentially proves that female students generally performed better than the males. Taking reflection mainly based on median scores that both female and male can perform at school, there can see that although the high scores of male and female are very similar,almost lowest scores ranges go to male students not the female  (John et al., 1990). An article “White Males Now Classed as ‘Minority Group at University’” written by Jolie Henry (2012) also states that in overall UK universities, the number of female undergraduates is now outnumbering that of male. Furthermore, there is also a wide gap between both of them plus most female students successfully continue to dominate the A-grade results in the UK.

Related to the performances of female and male students, some researchers concluded that there are not so many differences between female and male students. For instance, the study of Chinwuba Ambrose Okafor, Ph.D, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, illustrated that the academic performances of male and female students are similar level. The result of this study agrees with other several studies such as Lipe (1989), Tyson (1989) and Canlar & Bristol (1988). It is also noticed that this study is done at developing country, Nigeria while the previous study focus on the Western countries which are developed countries, and the outcome of the studies is the same. In addition, the reason that the female performances inferior to men is not about the women’s ability themselves but the culture of Nigeria which believes that women’s workplace is kitchen or women duties are to take care children, husbands, and other household works. However, if there is the same opportunity between men and women, it is truly that women performances are equal to men’s performance. A statistical test of difference in two means is adopted. The T-test for testing difference in means of two samples reveals if there exists any difference between two independent samples. This test statistic is chosen for this study because the two groups of subjects are independent, which is an assumption that underlies its use. The results presented were tested at 5% level of significance. Moreover, no difference was still found when the data were also tested at 10% and 1% levels of significance.

By reading many researches of the performance of girls and boys at school, we can conclude that some findings present the superiority of female’s performance to male’s. Contrary to this, some findings show that male’s performance is better than female. Besides, other researches show the equality between male and female’s performance at school.  However, the difference of each study’s result varied from one to another. The contradict results may due to many reasons while doing research: time, place of doing research, the level of intelligent of both male and female, the culture bounding, the different stages of study( primary , secondary, high school or at university) or the majors they study. As seen from many findings, there have some gaps of those finding. There still lack some points whether female’s performance in English academic and in the third year is better than those male? What are factors that have influence on the performance?

The main objectives to study are:

  1. To compare both sexes’ academic performances in BeD major
  2.  Factors that have influenced on male or female students who have better academic performances      


    Bell, J. M. (n.d.). Define Academic Performance. eHow. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from:                 

    Chinwuba Ambrose Okafor(2011, March 28). Academic Performance of Male versus

         Female Accounting School of Management. Scotland, United Kingdom, Vol.1,No.          1, p (911).

Farooq1, M. S., Chaudhry1, A. H., Shafiq1 M., & Berhanu2 G. (2011, December). Factors

      affecting students’ quality of academic performance: a case of secondary school level.

      Journal of Quality and Technology Management, VII (II), 3. Pakistan: 1Unversity of

      the Punjab& Sweden: 2University of Gonthenburg. Retrieved April 10, 2013,










John C. Chen,Samuel Owusu-Ofori, Devdas Pai,Eugenia Toca-McDowell, Shih-Liang


     Wang,   and Cynthia K. Waters (2012). A Study of Female Academic Performance


      in Mechanical Engineering. Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina






Julie Henry(19 August, 2012). White males now classed as a ‘minority group’ at university.



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